Massachusetts senator Edward Kennedyd… , American and European officials including former CIA Director Leon Panetta, former CIA officers, a Guantanamo prosecutor, and a military tribunal judge, have called "enhanced interrogation" a euphemism for torture. , However, neither US domestic nor international prosecution of high-ranking officials is likely.  The report concludes that some authorized techniques including "use of stress positions and sleep deprivation combined with other mistreatment" caused or were direct contributing factors in the cases of several prisoners who were tortured to death.  The CIA admits to waterboarding three people implicated in the September 11 attacks: Abu Zubaydah, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, and Mohammed al-Qahtani. Military interrogators generally look to gather information about future events or to plan future military operations; law enforcement interrogators usually seek to elicit a confession … Two contract psychologists devised the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques and played a central role in the operation, assessments, and management of the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program.  Mitchell and Jessen applied this idea to the interrogation of Abu Zubaydah. ': Effects of Training on Judgments of Truth and Deception in the Interrogation room". http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1068316X.2010.486380. " Yet in the 20th Century authoritarian states such as Mussolini's Fascist Italy, Hitler's Third Reich, and Lenin's and Stalin's Soviet Union once again resumed the practice, and on a massive scale.  No murder charges have been brought for these or for acknowledged torture-related homicides at Abu Ghraib and at Bagram. 499–516. , Donald Rumsfeld rescinded his December 2002 memo after six weeks.  In addition, President Bush signed the 2002 American Service-Members' Protection Act allowing military invasion of The Hague to rescue any Americans the court might detain for war crimes trials. History will not judge this kindly. Torture (Editorial)", "ICRC Report on the Treatment of Fourteen "High Value Detainees" in CIA Custody", "Fighting 'terrorism' with torture: torture is a form of terrorism: there are no justifications for it", "The Pentagon's IG Report Contradicts What the APA Has Said About the Involvement of Psychologists in Abusive Interrogations – A Q&A on Psychologists and Torture", "The Dark Side: Jane Mayer on the Inside Story of How the War on Terror Turned Into a War on American Ideals", "Enforced Disappearance, Illegal Interstate Transfer, and Other Human Rights Abuses Involving the UK Overseas Territories: Executive Summary", "Waterboarding Historically Controversial", "Command's Responsibility: Detainee Deaths in U.S. Investigations into these techniques resulted in the publication of policy directives that prohibited the use of hooding, stress positions or wall-standing, noise, sleep deprivation and deprivation of food and drink. ", In April 2002 the CIA had captured its first important prisoner, Abu Zubaydah, who was transferred to a CIA black site and at the suggestion of psychologist James Mitchell the CIA embarked on interrogation methods which included sleep deprivation using bright lights and loud music—still prior to any legal authorization from the US Justice Department. Der Military Commissions Act (Gesetz über Militärkommissionen) ist ein US-amerikanisches Bundesgesetz, das den rechtlichen Status sogenannter „ungesetzlicher feindlicher Kombattanten“ regelt. "Because specific intent is an element of the offense, the absence of specific intent negates the charge of torture", Jay Bybee, then the Assistant Attorney General, wrote in the memo, dated August 1, 2002, addressed to the CIA acting General Counsel John A. Rizzo.  But after the 13th Century many European states such as Germany, Italy, and Spain began to return to physical abuse for religious inquisition, and for secular investigations. " Obama Administration CIA director John Brennan said that it is "unknowable" whether brutality helped or hindered in the collection of useful intelligence. The working group based its new guidelines on a legal memo from the United States Department of Justice Office of Legal Counsel written by John Yoo and signed by Jay S. Bybee in August 2002, which would later become widely known as the "Torture Memo." The CIA was unprepared as it began operating its Detention and Interrogation Program more than six months after being granted detention authorities. The effect of this act is to cause great shame.  The Center has filed a grievance with the United Nations for Canada's failure to enforce the Convention Against Torture, on which action is pending. 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